Bauska

Bauska

Bauske

 

Distance from Riga 66 km (A7)

 

The first Jewish settlement of the descendants of the Lithuanian Jews appeared on the right bank of the river Mēmele in the early 17th century.

By the 18th century Bauska had a functioning synagogue and a Jewish cemetery. The local Jews were granted permission to settle and live in the inner town in 1820. The 3,631 Jews, who lived in Bauska in 1881, made up 60% of the entire city population.

World famous Rabbis lead Jewish community of Bauska for several decades. Among them were Mordekhai Eliasberg (In service as Rabbi: 1862–1889) and Avraham Yitzchak HaCohen Kook (In service as Rabbi: 1895–1904).

By 1935, the total population of Bauska consisted of 4,904 people, 778 of whom were Jewish.

Nazi troops occupied Bauska on the 28th of Juny 1941. The mass extermination of the Jews in Bauska was complete by the mid-August 1941. Only two of them survived to see the liberation of the town on the 30th of July 1944.

 

Synagogues, Rīgas,35. The original timber synagogue was built in the 1820s. The brick one was built nearby in 1840. The new building also included the Rabbis’ living headquarters. One of the Rabbis who lived here was famous Rav Kook. Both synagogues were burned down on the 4th of July 1941. Photo: 1930s

Hasidic Prayer House, Kalnu, 2. It was built in 1938.

Kosher Slaughter House and Butcher Shop, Rīgas, 37. The building was constructed in the late 19th century.

Day Clinic, Rīgas, 51. An unprecedented act of cruelty was committed here in the mid-July 1941. 56 Jewish male, 9 of whom were boys from 8 to 15 years of age, were forcibly brought here and sterilized. All of them, but one, who managed to escape, were executed in the early August 1941. The former day clinic currently ventures the offices of the local newspaper.

Mikvah, Upes, 3. The building was converted into a residential house after the WWII.

Jewish Religious School, Kalnu, 20. The Rabbi’s and the teacher’ living headquarters were also situated in this building, which currently is not in use.

Nahman Yankelovich’s Printing House, Rūpniecības, 5. The first local newspaper «Bauskas Sludinājumi», founded by Nahman Yankelovich, was published here from 1893 to 1915.

The Likvertene Forest, on the 8 km mark on the road from Bauska to Vecsaule, turn off the right side of the road and travel 1 km into the forest. In accordance to different pieces of evidence from 700 to 800 Bauska Jews were killed here during two nights in August 1941.

Bauska Museum of Regional Studies and Art, Kalna, 6. A part of the permanent exhibition is dedicated to the history of Bauska Jews.

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